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Pressure to be circumcised is even in the language: one Tagalog word for 'uncircumcised' is supot , meaning 'coward' literally. A circumcised eight or ten year-old is no longer considered a boy and is given more adult roles in the family and society.

There is a long-running and vigorous debate over ethical concerns regarding circumcision, particularly neonatal circumcision for reasons other than intended direct medical benefit.

There are three parties involved in the decision to circumcise a minor: the minor as the patient, the parents or other guardians and the physician. The physician is bound under the ethical principles of beneficence promoting well-being and non-maleficence "first, do no harm" , and so is charged with the responsibility to promote the best interests of the patient while minimizing unnecessary harms.

Those involved must weigh the factors of what is in the best interest of the minor against the potential harms of the procedure.

With a newborn involved, the decision is made more complex due to the principles of respect for autonomy and consent, as a newborn cannot understand or engage in a logical discussion of his own values and best interests.

Ethicists and legal theorists also state that it is questionable for parents to make a decision for the child that precludes the child from making a different decision for himself later.

Such a question can be raised for the decision by the parents either to circumcise or not to circumcise the child. Generally, circumcision on a minor is not ethically controversial or legally questionable when there is a clear and pressing medical indication for which it is the accepted best practice to resolve.

Where circumcision is the chosen intervention, the physician has an ethical responsibility to ensure the procedure is performed competently and safely to minimize potential harms.

Throughout society, circumcision is often considered for reasons other than medical need. Public health advocates of circumcision consider it to have a net benefit, and therefore feel that increasing the circumcision rate is an ethical imperative.

They recommend performing the procedure during the neonatal period when it is less expensive and has a lower risk of complications. Pinto writes "sober proponents and detractors of circumcision agree that there is no overwhelming medical evidence to support either side.

Parents are assumed to have the child's best interests in mind. Ethically, it is imperative that the medical practitioner inform the parents about the benefits and risks of the procedure and obtain informed consent before performing it.

Practically, however, many parents come to a decision about circumcising the child before he is born, and a discussion of the benefits and risks of the procedure with a physician has not been shown to have a significant effect on the decision.

Some parents request to have their newborn or older child circumcised for non-therapeutic reasons, such as the parents' desires to adhere to family tradition, cultural norms or religious beliefs.

In considering such a request, the physician may consider in addition to any potential medical benefits and harms such non-medical factors in determining the child's best interests and may ethically perform the procedure.

Equally, without a clear medical benefit relative to the potential harms, a physician may take the ethical position that non-medical factors do not contribute enough as benefits to outweigh the potential harms and refuse to perform the procedure.

Medical organization such as the British Medical Association state that their member physicians are not obliged to perform the procedure in such situations.

In the International NGO Council on Violence against Children identified non-therapeutic circumcision of infants and boys as being among harmful practices that constitute violence against children and violate their rights.

The cost-effectiveness of circumcision has been studied to determine whether a policy of circumcising all newborns or a policy of promoting and providing inexpensive or free access to circumcision for all adult men who choose it would result in lower overall societal healthcare costs.

The overall cost-effectiveness of neonatal circumcision has also been studied in the United States, which has a different cost setting from Africa in areas such as public health infrastructure, availability of medications, and medical technology and the willingness to use it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Circumsicion. This article is about male circumcision.

For female circumcision, see Female genital mutilation. Removal of the foreskin from the human penis. A circumcision performed in Central Asia, c.

Main article: Circumcision surgical procedure. Main article: Circumcision and HIV. Main article: Prevalence of circumcision. Main article: History of circumcision.

See also: Religious male circumcision. Main article: Brit milah. Main article: Khitan circumcision. Main article: Tuli rite.

Main article: Ethics of circumcision. See also: Circumcision controversies and Circumcision and law. Rudolph's Pediatrics, 22nd Edition.

McGraw-Hill Companies, Incorporated. Archived from the original on 18 January Archived from the original on World Health Organization. Archived PDF from the original on Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics, Fourth edition.

Although routine neonatal circumcision is still common in some Western countries such as the USA, the arguments generally used to justify on medical grounds have been discredited and no national or international medical association currently advocates routine neonatal circumcision.

McGraw Hill Professional. In Bolnick, David A. Surgical Guide to Circumcision. London: Springer. Outside of strategic regions in sub-Saharan Africa, no call for routine circumcision has been made by any established medical organizations or governmental bodies.

Pediatric Clinics of North America. Cambridge University Press. World Journal of Urology. Siegfried, Nandi ed. March Current Opinion in Urology.

BJU International. J Am Osteopath Assoc. The Lancet Global Health. BMC Urol. In Partin, Alan ed. Campbell Walsh Wein Urology 12th ed.

Sadeghi-Nejad et al. Doyle et al. Perera et al. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Retrieved 12 April Hospitals: —". The Centers for Disease Control.

Retrieved 1 May Obstet Gynecol Surv. Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. Islam For Dummies. Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 4 September Geneva: World Health Organization.

December Annals of Family Medicine. College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia. September Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol.

What's the best way to control circumcision pain in newborns? J Fam Pract. Handbook of Office Urological Procedures. Van Baal, Pieter H.

Bibcode : PLoSO March 28, Archived PDF from the original on August 8, Am J Reprod Immunol. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 11 March Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved September 12, Asian Journal of Andrology.

Sex Transm Dis. Sexually Transmitted Infections. Epidemiol Rev. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases.

Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Journal of Pediatric Urology.

Archived from the original on October 7, Retrieved Reactive and Inflammatory Dermatoses. The Journal of Urology.

Fedorowicz, Zbys ed. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Cancer Causes Control. American Cancer Society.

Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. The Lancet. Global Health. The Scientific World Journal.

American Academy of Family Physicians. Weak evidence suggests that MS risk might be higher in circumcised boys and young adult males.

Paediatr Child Health. National Health Service. Can Urol Assoc J. Dan Med J Systematic review. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Asian J.

Systematic review. British Medical Association. J Evid Based Med Systematic review. Population Health Metrics. BMC Infectious Diseases. August 22, Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 22 January Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel.

Westminster John Knox Press. Abraham patriarchal known history. Encyclopaedia Judaica 2 ed. USA: Macmillan Reference. Jewish Encyclopedia.

In order to prevent the obliteration of the 'seal of the covenant' on the flesh, as circumcision was henceforth called, the Rabbis, probably after the war of Bar Kokba see Yeb.

Archived from the original PDF on 17 December Retrieved 30 November Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road illustrated ed.

University of Pennsylvania Press. Journal of Social History. Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland. Schneider Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Br Med J. J Law Med. Reproductive Health Matters.

March 3, Archived from the original on January 8, Retrieved February 1, May Archived from the original on 12 March Islamic ruling on male and female circumcision.

Encyclopedia of Religion 2 ed. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices: Religions and denominations. Thomson Gale. Archived from the original on December 27, Mark Brit Shalom.

Jews Against Circumcision. Reform Judaism. Archived from the original on March 12, Jewish Reconstructionist Federation.

Archived from the original on October 9, Calgary Jewish Community Council. In Norman P. Tanner ed. Decrees of the ecumenical councils.

Washington, D. O'Brien American Journal of Bioethics. London: Manchester University Press. Chapter 5. Zimbabwe's Cultural Heritage.

The death and deformity caused by male circumcision in Africa can't be ignored. The Guardian. May 6, Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 6 December Channel News Asia.

Von Norden nach Süden zeichnen sich die Regionen mit einer Vielfalt an Sehenswürdigkeiten sowie touristischen und kulinarischen Angeboten und Attraktionen aus.

Hier finden sowohl Besucher als auch Einheimische in jeder Stadt etwas Besonderes. Unter www. Mai bis zum Mai zum gemeinsamen Beisammensein in der grünen Mainmetropole willkommen.

Seit Generationen wird hier ab Mittag die Arbeit Arbeit sein gelassen, um in den Frankfurter Stadtwald zu ziehen und gemeinsam zu feiern.

Der Wäldchestag steht für Identifikation, Verbundenheit und Tradition und verbindet die Frankfurter auf einzigartige Weise miteinander.

Der Stadtwald ist für Besucher kostenlos zu begehen und mit öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln leicht zu erreichen.

Zwar gibt es zahlreiche Möglichkeiten die Mainmetropole zu erkunden — die Fahrt mit dem Apfelweinwagen ist jedoch mit Sicherheit am urigsten.

Die Bahn bietet neben einer erstklassigen Aussicht auf die umliegenden Sehenswürdigkeiten der Stadt auch Frankfurter Spezialitäten in geselliger Runde.

Die Fahrten finden zwischen Uhr und 19 Uhr statt. Wer hingegen ein Einzelstück bevorzugt, der wird hier ebenso fündig, denn dieses wird individuell nach den Wünschen und Vorstellungen der Kunden gefertigt.

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Aus Dankbarkeit schenkte er der Stadt einen Tempel, der in Bangkok gefertigt, in Einzelteile zerlegt und per Schiff nach Deutschland überführt wurde.

Zur Der Palmengarten ist aus einer privaten bürgerlichen Initiative heraus entstanden und wurde eröffnet. Der Park entwickelte sich schnell zu einem gesellschaftlichen Zentrum Frankfurts , ein besonderes Highlight der damaligen Zeit war der Besuch des Büffeljägers Buffalo Bills , der mit Indianern und Cowboys eine einzigartige Westernshow aufführte.

Die Pflanzen befinden sich entweder auf den Freiflächen oder in einem der klimatisierten Gewächshäuser. Es gibt tropische und subtropische Pflanzen, eine sub-arktische Landschaft sowie zwei Wüstenlandschaften.

Die barocke Residenz der Fürsten und späteren Herzöge von Nassau am Rheinufer entstand nicht nach einem einheitlichen Entwurf, sondern wurde zwischen und immer wieder erweitert und umgebaut.

Alles begann mit einem Gartenhäuschen im Jahr , welches erst zu einem Wohnschlösschen für den Fürsten wurde. Danach wurde ein identisches Schlösschen für die Fürstin gebaut, diese beiden wurden einige Jahre später durch eine Rotunde verbunden und ab begann der Ausbau zur barocken Dreiflügelanlage.

Heute zählt das Schloss Biebrich zu den bedeutendsten Barockschlössern am Rhein. Eine weitere beeindruckende Sehenswürdigkeit Hessen ist das Schloss Braunfeld, welches seit dem Jahrhundert im Besitz der Grafen von Solms ist.

Die Mitglieder der Grafenfamilie waren durch die Jahrhundert durch begeisterte Bauherren. Vom Jahrhundert wurden erste umfassende Erweiterungen an der Kernburg vorgenommen, dabei wurde die mittelalterliche Burg zu einer Festung ausgebaut.

Ende des Jahrhunderts wurde die Festung zu einem barocken Schloss umgestaltet. Im Jahr gab es einen erneuten Umbau, bei dem aufgrund der damaligen romantischen Geisteshaltung eine idealisierte Phantasieburg entstanden ist, die es so im Mittelalter nicht gegeben hat.

Vier Jahrzehnte später wurde das Schloss nochmal grundlegend umgestaltet im Stil des Historismus , wobei vorwiegend romanische und gotische Stilelemente verwendet wurden.

Das Schloss wurde im Jahrhundert als Burg angelegt und einige Jahrzehnte später zur ersten Residenz der Landgrafschaft Hessen aus- und umgebaut.

Ab dem Jahr wurde das Schloss nicht mehr als Residenz für den Landgrafen genutzt, sondern hatte im Laufe der Jahrhunderte verschiedene Nutzungen, z.

Heute beherbergt es das Marbuger Universitätsmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte. Die Burg wurde von bis von einer fünf Kilometer langen und drei Meter hohen Dornenhecke umgeben.

Allerdings diente sie nicht dazu, Prinzen fernzuhalten, sondern die fürstliche Tierhaltung vor Wildtieren zu schützen. Ab bis enthielt die Sababurg ein Hotel , seit Sommer wird sie umfassend renoviert.

In der Nähe der Burg befinden sich noch weitere tolle Ausflugsziele Hessens , wie z. Das Kastell Saalburg ist ein ehemaliges Kastell des römischen Limes und gilt als das besterforschte und am vollständigsten rekonstruierte Kastell des Obergermanisch-Raetischen Limes.

Von bis erfolgte mit der Rekonstruktion weiterer Gebäude der Ausbau zum Archäologischen Park. Den Limes kannst Du entweder streckenweise — oder für ganz sportliche — komplett mit dem Fahrrad abfahren oder erwandern, wodurch das Ausflugsziel in Hessen auch mit Hund geeignet ist.

Der Limes ist also auch eine gute Sehenswürdigkeit in Hessen für Kinder. Kloster Eberbach. Das Kloster Eberbach, eine der wenigen, fast vollständig erhaltenen, Zisterzienserabteien Deutschlands, zählt ebenfalls zu den Sehenswürdigkeiten Hessens.

Das Kloster war weithin für seinen Weinbau berühmt und zählte zu den ältesten und bedeutendsten Zisterzen in Deutschland.

Bis heute zeugen die zwölf historischen Weinpressen im Laienrefektorium von den enormen Erträgen der klösterlichen Anbaugebiete. Die gegründet Benediktinerabtei Kloster Lorsch ist ebenfalls ein sehenswertes Ausflugsziel in Hessen.

Die ehemalige Bibliothek und heutige Torhalle des Klosters ist eins der wenigen vollständig erhaltenen Baudenkmale aus der Zeit der Karolinger.

Das Lorscher Arzneibuch vom Ende des 8. Die Grube dokumentiert die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Erde vor 48 Millionen Jahren , als nach dem Aussterben der Saurier explosionsartige Veränderungen die Tier- und Pflanzenwelt bestimmten.

Der Erhaltungszustand, die Menge und Vielfalt der dort gefundenen Fossilien ist einzigartig. Mehrere Es dauerte bis bis der Nutzungsplan als Mülldeponie endgültig aufgegeben wurde.

Der Nationalpark ist ein Paradies für Wanderer und zählt auf jeden Fall zu den beeindruckendsten Sehenswürdigkeiten Hessens.

Auf insgesamt 20 Wanderwegen kannst Du verwunschen wirkende Buchen , klare Quellen und bizarre Steinformationen entdecken — der Wald wirkt wie aus einem Märchen entsprungen.

Deswegen zählen die Seen auch zu den beliebtesten Ausflugszielen in Hessen, die vor allem auch mit Kind und Hund geeignet sind.

Der See hat einige Badestellen und Liegewiesen, sowie viele Sportmöglichkeiten zu bieten, unter anderem surfen, angeln, segeln und paddeln.

Der Twistesee ist ein beliebtes Ausflugsziel Hessens mit Kindern, da der Sandstrand sehr flach in den See abfällt und er deswegen für Kleinkinder und Kinder gut geeignet ist.

Die besondere Felsformation wurde bereits von den Römern zur Steingewinnung genutzt , mittlerweile ist es ein beliebtes Naherholungsgebiet und Ausflugsziel für Familien und Wanderer.

Vor Millionen Jahren sind zwei Kontinente kollidiert , wodurch ein riesiges Gebirge oberirdisch und flüssige Magma unterirdisch, entstanden ist.

Im Laufe der Jahrmillionen wurde das Gebirge abgetragen und die Magma zu Gesteinsbrocken, die nach und nach freigelegt wurden.

Eine Sage der Gegend erklärt die Entstehung etwas anders:. Der eine Riese hatte mehr Steine zur Verfügung und begrub den anderen Riesen darunter.

Tropfsteinhöhlen üben schon lange eine unwiderstehliche Faszination auf Menschen aus. Wenn Du auch zu den Hobby-Höhlenforschern gehörst, die sich dem Wunder von Stalagmiten, Stalaktiten und Kristallen nicht entziehen können, sind die Tropfsteinhöhlen in Hessen genau das richtige.

Mit ihrer technischen Ausstattung gehört sie zu den modernsten Schauhöhlen Europas. Oberirdisch geht es mit dem Karst- und Höhlenlehrpfad weiter, auf dem Du eigenständig Höhlen erkunden kannst, was sowohl für Kinder, als auch für Erwachsene spannend ist.

Die Höhle ist etwa 2,5 Millionen Jahre alt und ein geologisches Naturdenkmal. Entdeckt wurde sie , als eine Kuh in die Höhle hinunter stürzte.

Da die Bevölkerung lange Zeit dachte, dass der Teufel in der Höhle lebt , wurde sie weitestgehend gemieden. Nach einer Begehung wurde beschlossen, die Höhle begehbar zu machen.

Ab bis wurde ein Zugangsstollen gegraben und die Höhle ausgebaut. Die Kristallhöhle in Kubach zählt zu den atemberaubendsten Sehenswürdigkeiten Hessens: Der Kristallschmuck der Wände gilt in dieser Form als einzigartig in Deutschland.

Sie ist die höchste Schauhöhle und die einzige Calcitkristallhöhle in Deutschlan d. Die Höhle ist circa 50 bis 70 Meter unter der Erde , bislang wurde allerdings nur ein kleiner Teil von ihr freigelegt.

First, the amount of foreskin to be removed is estimated. The practitioner opens the foreskin via the preputial orifice to reveal the glans underneath and ensures it is normal before bluntly separating the inner lining of the foreskin preputial epithelium from its attachment to the glans.

The practitioner then places the circumcision device this sometimes requires a dorsal slit , which remains until blood flow has stopped.

Finally, the foreskin is amputated. The circumcision procedure causes pain, and for neonates this pain may interfere with mother-infant interaction or cause other behavioral changes, [34] so the use of analgesia is advocated.

Pharmacological methods, such as localized or regional pain-blocking injections and topical analgesic creams, are safe and effective.

They are more effective than EMLA eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream, which is more effective than a placebo. For infants, non-pharmacological methods such as the use of a comfortable, padded chair and a sucrose or non-sucrose pacifier are more effective at reducing pain than a placebo, [37] but the American Academy of Pediatrics AAP states that such methods are insufficient alone and should be used to supplement more effective techniques.

There is strong evidence that circumcision reduces the risk of men acquiring HIV infection in areas of the world with high rates of HIV.

There are plausible explanations based on human biology for how circumcision can decrease the likelihood of female-to-male HIV transmission.

The superficial skin layers of the penis contain Langerhans cells , which are targeted by HIV; removing the foreskin reduces the number of these cells.

When an uncircumcised penis is erect during intercourse, any small tears on the inner surface of the foreskin come into direct contact with the vaginal walls, providing a pathway for transmission.

When an uncircumcised penis is flaccid , the pocket between the inside of the foreskin and the head of the penis provides an environment conducive to pathogen survival; circumcision eliminates this pocket.

Some experimental evidence has been provided to support these theories. The WHO and the UNAIDS state that male circumcision is an efficacious intervention for HIV prevention, but should be carried out by well-trained medical professionals and under conditions of informed consent parents' consent for their infant boys.

Male circumcision provides only indirect HIV protection for heterosexual women. Human papillomavirus HPV is the most commonly transmitted sexually transmitted infection , affecting both men and women.

While most infections are asymptomatic and are cleared by the immune system , some types of the virus cause genital warts , and other types, if untreated, cause various forms of cancer, including cervical cancer , and penile cancer.

Genital warts and cervical cancer are the two most common problems resulting from HPV. Circumcision is associated with a reduced prevalence of oncogenic types of HPV infection, meaning that a randomly selected circumcised man is less likely to be found infected with cancer-causing types of HPV than an uncircumcised man.

Although genital warts are caused by a type of HPV, there is no statistically significant relationship between being circumcised and the presence of genital warts.

Studies evaluating the effect of circumcision on the rates of other sexually transmitted infections have generally, found it to be protective.

A meta-analysis found that circumcision was associated with lower rates of syphilis , chancroid and possibly genital herpes.

Phimosis is the inability to retract the foreskin over the glans penis. An inflammation of the glans penis and foreskin is called balanoposthitis, and the condition affecting the glans alone is called balanitis.

Yeasts, especially Candida albicans , are the most common penile infection and are rarely identified in samples taken from circumcised males.

A UTI affects parts of the urinary system including the urethra , bladder , and kidneys. There is about a one percent risk of UTIs in boys under two years of age, and the majority of incidents occur in the first year of life.

There is good but not ideal evidence that circumcision of babies reduces the incidence of UTIs in boys under two years of age, and there is fair evidence that the reduction in incidence is by a factor of 3—10 times circumcisions prevents one UTI.

There is a plausible biological explanation for the reduction in UTI risk after circumcision. The orifice through which urine passes at the tip of the penis the urinary meatus hosts more urinary system disease-causing bacteria in uncircumcised boys than in circumcised boys, especially in those under six months of age.

As these bacteria are a risk factor for UTIs, circumcision may reduce the risk of UTIs through a decrease in the bacterial population.

Circumcision has a protective effect against the risks of penile cancer in men, and cervical cancer in the female sexual partners of heterosexual men.

Penile cancer is rare, with about 1 new case per , people per year in developed countries, and higher incidence rates per , in sub-Saharan Africa for example: 1.

Penile cancer development can be detected in the carcinoma in situ CIS cancerous precursor stage and at the more advanced invasive squamous cell carcinoma stage.

Important risk factors for penile cancer include phimosis and HPV infection, both of which are mitigated by circumcision. This can be inferred from study results that show uncircumcised men with no history of phimosis are equally likely to have penile cancer as circumcised men.

There is some evidence that circumcision is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. A meta-analysis found a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with circumcision in black men.

A systematic review found consistent evidence that male circumcision prior to heterosexual contact was associated with a decreased risk of cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia , HSV-2, chlamydia, and syphilis among women.

The evidence was less consistent in regards to the potential association of circumcision with women's risk of HPV and HIV.

Neonatal circumcision is generally safe when done by an experienced practitioner. Effective pain management should be used.

The question of how circumcision affects penile sensitivity and sexual satisfaction is controversial; some research has found a loss of sensation while other research has found enhanced sensation.

Reduced sexual sensation is a possible complication of male circumcision. In general, there is controversy over whether non-therapeutic circumcision can confer psychological benefits, or whether it causes psychological harms.

Overall, as of [update] it is unclear what the psychological outcomes of circumcision are, with some studies showing negative effects, and others showing that the effects are negligible.

Circumcision is one of the world's most widely performed medical procedures. Prevalence is near-universal in the Middle East and Central Asia.

The rates of routine neonatal circumcision over time have varied significantly by country. In the United States, hospital discharge surveys estimated rates at One possible reason may have been a British Medical Journal article which stated that there was no medical reason for the general circumcision of babies.

Medical organizations can affect the neonatal circumcision rate of a country by influencing whether the costs of the procedure are borne by the parents or are covered by insurance or a national health care system.

Circumcision is the world's oldest planned surgical procedure, suggested by anatomist and hyperdiffusionist historian Grafton Elliot Smith to be over 15, years old, pre-dating recorded history.

There is no firm consensus as to how it came to be practiced worldwide. One theory is that it began in one geographic area and spread from there; another is that several different cultural groups began its practice independently.

In his work History of Circumcision , physician Peter Charles Remondino suggested that it began as a less severe form of emasculating a captured enemy: penectomy or castration would likely have been fatal, while some form of circumcision would permanently mark the defeated yet leave him alive to serve as a slave.

The history of the migration and evolution of the practice of circumcision is followed mainly through the cultures and peoples in two separate regions.

In the lands south and east of the Mediterranean, starting with Sudan and Ethiopia, the procedure was practiced by the ancient Egyptians and the Semites , and then by the Jews and Muslims, with whom the practice travelled to and was adopted by the Bantu Africans.

In Oceania, circumcision is practiced by the Australian Aboriginals and Polynesians. Evidence suggests that circumcision was practiced in the Middle East by the 4th millennium BCE, when the Sumerians and the Semites moved into the area that is modern-day Iraq from the North and West.

Circumcision was done by the Egyptians possibly for hygienic reasons, but also was part of their obsession with purity and was associated with spiritual and intellectual development.

No well-accepted theory explains the significance of circumcision to the Egyptians, but it appears to have been endowed with great honor and importance as a rite of passage into adulthood, performed in a public ceremony emphasizing the continuation of family generations and fertility.

It may have been a mark of distinction for the elite: the Egyptian Book of the Dead describes the sun god Ra as having circumcised himself.

Though secular scholars consider the story to be literary and not historical, [92] circumcision features prominently in the Hebrew Bible.

The narrative in Genesis chapter 17 describes the circumcision of Abraham and his relatives and slaves. In the same chapter, Abraham's descendants are commanded to circumcise their sons on the eighth day of life as part of a covenant with God.

In addition to proposing that circumcision was taken up by the Israelites purely as a religious mandate, scholars have suggested that Judaism's patriarchs and their followers adopted circumcision to make penile hygiene easier in hot, sandy climates; as a rite of passage into adulthood; or as a form of blood sacrifice.

The Greeks abhorred circumcision, making life for circumcised Jews living among the Greeks and later the Romans very difficult.

Antiochus Epiphanes outlawed circumcision, as did Hadrian , which helped cause the Bar Kokhba revolt. During this period in history, Jewish circumcision called for the removal of only a part of the prepuce, and some Hellenized Jews attempted to look uncircumcised by stretching the extant parts of their foreskins.

This was considered by the Jewish leaders to be a serious problem, and during the 2nd century CE they changed the requirements of Jewish circumcision to call for the complete removal of the foreskin, [94] emphasizing the Jewish view of circumcision as intended to be not just the fulfillment of a Biblical commandment but also an essential and permanent mark of membership in a people.

A narrative in the Christian Gospel of Luke makes a brief mention of the circumcision of Jesus , but the subject of physical circumcision itself is not part of the received teachings of Jesus.

Paul the Apostle reinterpreted circumcision as a spiritual concept, arguing the physical one to be unnecessary for Gentile converts to Christianity.

The teaching that physical circumcision was unnecessary for membership in a divine covenant was instrumental in the separation of Christianity from Judaism.

Although it is not explicitly mentioned in the Quran early 7th century CE , circumcision is considered essential to Islam, and it is nearly universally performed among Muslims.

Genghis Khan and the following Yuan Emperors in China forbade Islamic practices such as halal butchering and circumcision.

The practice of circumcision is thought to have been brought to the Bantu-speaking tribes of Africa by either the Jews after one of their many expulsions from European countries, or by Muslim Moors escaping after the reconquest of Spain.

These people moved south and formed what is known today as the Bantu. Bantu tribes were observed to be upholding what was described as Jewish law, including circumcision, in the 16th century.

Circumcision and elements of Jewish dietary restrictions are still found among Bantu tribes. Circumcision is practiced by some groups amongst Australian Aboriginal peoples, Polynesians , and Native Americans.

Little information is available about the origins and history of circumcision among these peoples, compared to circumcision in the Middle East. For Aboriginal Australians and Polynesians, circumcision likely started as a blood sacrifice and a test of bravery and became an initiation rite with attendant instruction in manhood in more recent centuries.

Often seashells were used to remove the foreskin, and the bleeding was stopped with eucalyptus smoke. Christopher Columbus reported circumcision being practiced by Native Americans.

It probably started among South American tribes as a blood sacrifice or ritual mutilation to test bravery and endurance, and its use later evolved into a rite of initiation.

Circumcision did not become a common medical procedure in the Anglophone world until the late 19th century. In , Sayre began using circumcision as a purported cure for several cases of young boys diagnosed with paralysis or significant motor problems.

He thought the procedure ameliorated such problems based on a "reflex neurosis" theory of disease, which held that excessive stimulation of the genitals was a disturbance to the equilibrium of the nervous system and a cause of systemic problems.

Sayre published works on the subject and promoted it energetically in speeches. Contemporary physicians picked up on Sayre's new treatment, which they believed could prevent or cure a wide-ranging array of medical problems and social ills.

By the turn of the century infant circumcision was near universally recommended in America and Great Britain. After the end of World War II , Britain implemented a National Health Service , and so looked to ensure that each medical procedure covered by the new system was cost-effective and the procedure for non-medical reasons was not covered by the national healthcare system.

Douglas Gairdner 's article "The Fate of the Foreskin" argued that the evidence available at that time showed that the risks outweighed the known benefits.

In the s, national medical associations in Australia and Canada issued recommendations against routine infant circumcision, leading to drops in the rates of both of those countries.

The United States made similar statements in the s, but stopped short of recommending against it, simply stating that it has no medical benefit.

Since then they have amended their policy statements several times, with the current recommendation being that the benefits outweigh the risks, but they do not recommend it routinely.

An association between circumcision and reduced heterosexual HIV infection rates was suggested in In some cultures, males are generally required to be circumcised shortly after birth, during childhood or around puberty as part of a rite of passage.

The basis for its observance is found in the Torah of the Hebrew Bible, in Genesis chapter 17, in which a covenant of circumcision is made with Abraham and his descendants.

Jewish circumcision is part of the brit milah ritual, to be performed by a specialist ritual circumciser, a mohel , on the eighth day of a newborn son's life, with certain exceptions for poor health.

Jewish law requires that the circumcision leaves the glans bare when the penis is flaccid. Converts to Conservative and Orthodox Judaism must also be circumcised; those who are already circumcised undergo a symbolic circumcision ritual.

Circumcision is not required by Judaism for one to be considered Jewish, but some adherents foresee serious negative spiritual consequences if it is neglected.

According to traditional Jewish law, in the absence of an adult free Jewish male expert, a woman, a slave, or a child who has the required skills is also authorized to perform the circumcision, provided that they are Jewish.

This ceremony of brit shalom is not officially approved of by the Reform or Reconstructionist rabbinical organizations, who make the recommendation that male infants should be circumcised, though the issue of converts remains controversial [] [] and circumcision of converts is not mandatory in either movement.

Although there is some debate within Islam over whether it is a religious requirement, circumcision called khitan is practiced nearly universally by Muslim males.

Islam bases its practice of circumcision on the Genesis 17 narrative, the same Biblical chapter referred to by Jews.

The procedure is not explicitly mentioned in the Quran, however, it is a tradition established by Islam's prophet Muhammad directly following Abraham , and so its practice is considered a sunnah prophet's tradition and is very important in Islam.

For Muslims, circumcision is also a matter of cleanliness, purification and control over one's baser self nafs.

There is no agreement across the many Islamic communities about the age at which circumcision should be performed. It may be done from soon after birth up to about age 15; most often it is performed at around six to seven years of age.

The timing can correspond with the boy's completion of his recitation of the whole Quran, with a coming-of-age event such as taking on the responsibility of daily prayer or betrothal.

Circumcision may be celebrated with an associated family or community event. Circumcision is recommended for, but is not required of, converts to Islam.

The New Testament chapter Acts 15 records that Christianity did not require circumcision. In the Catholic Church banned the practice of religious circumcision in the 11th Council of Florence [] and currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision.

Certain African cultural groups, such as the Yoruba and the Igbo of Nigeria , customarily circumcise their infant sons. The procedure is also practiced by some cultural groups or individual family lines in Sudan , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Uganda and in southern Africa.

For some of these groups, circumcision appears to be purely cultural, done with no particular religious significance or intention to distinguish members of a group.

For others, circumcision might be done for purification , or it may be interpreted as a mark of subjugation. Among these groups, even when circumcision is done for reasons of tradition, it is often done in hospitals.

It is also used for distinguished age groups. This is usually done after every fifteen years where a new "age set" are formed. The new members are to undergo initiation at the same time.

Whenever new age groups are initiated, they will become novice warriors and replace the previous group. The new initiates will be given a unique name that will be an important marker of the history of the Maasai.

No anesthesia is used, and initiates have to endure the pain or be called flinchers. In doing so, young boys will announce to their family members when they are ready for circumcision by singing.

The sacrifice is the blood spilt during the initiation procedure. Young boys will be considered an "outsiders" unless they undergo circumcision. Some Australian Aborigines use circumcision as a test of bravery and self-control as a part of a rite of passage into manhood, which results in full societal and ceremonial membership.

It may be accompanied by body scarification and the removal of teeth, and may be followed later by penile subincision.

Circumcision is one of many trials and ceremonies required before a youth is considered to have become knowledgeable enough to maintain and pass on the cultural traditions.

During these trials, the maturing youth bonds in solidarity with the men. Circumcision is also strongly associated with a man's family, and it is part of the process required to prepare a man to take a wife and produce his own family.

In the Philippines, circumcision known as "tuli" is sometimes viewed as a rite of passage. The practice dates back to the arrival of Islam in Pressure to be circumcised is even in the language: one Tagalog word for 'uncircumcised' is supot , meaning 'coward' literally.

A circumcised eight or ten year-old is no longer considered a boy and is given more adult roles in the family and society.

There is a long-running and vigorous debate over ethical concerns regarding circumcision, particularly neonatal circumcision for reasons other than intended direct medical benefit.

There are three parties involved in the decision to circumcise a minor: the minor as the patient, the parents or other guardians and the physician.

The physician is bound under the ethical principles of beneficence promoting well-being and non-maleficence "first, do no harm" , and so is charged with the responsibility to promote the best interests of the patient while minimizing unnecessary harms.

Those involved must weigh the factors of what is in the best interest of the minor against the potential harms of the procedure.

With a newborn involved, the decision is made more complex due to the principles of respect for autonomy and consent, as a newborn cannot understand or engage in a logical discussion of his own values and best interests.

Ethicists and legal theorists also state that it is questionable for parents to make a decision for the child that precludes the child from making a different decision for himself later.

Such a question can be raised for the decision by the parents either to circumcise or not to circumcise the child. Generally, circumcision on a minor is not ethically controversial or legally questionable when there is a clear and pressing medical indication for which it is the accepted best practice to resolve.

Where circumcision is the chosen intervention, the physician has an ethical responsibility to ensure the procedure is performed competently and safely to minimize potential harms.

Throughout society, circumcision is often considered for reasons other than medical need. Public health advocates of circumcision consider it to have a net benefit, and therefore feel that increasing the circumcision rate is an ethical imperative.

They recommend performing the procedure during the neonatal period when it is less expensive and has a lower risk of complications.

Pinto writes "sober proponents and detractors of circumcision agree that there is no overwhelming medical evidence to support either side. Parents are assumed to have the child's best interests in mind.

Ethically, it is imperative that the medical practitioner inform the parents about the benefits and risks of the procedure and obtain informed consent before performing it.

Practically, however, many parents come to a decision about circumcising the child before he is born, and a discussion of the benefits and risks of the procedure with a physician has not been shown to have a significant effect on the decision.

Some parents request to have their newborn or older child circumcised for non-therapeutic reasons, such as the parents' desires to adhere to family tradition, cultural norms or religious beliefs.

In considering such a request, the physician may consider in addition to any potential medical benefits and harms such non-medical factors in determining the child's best interests and may ethically perform the procedure.

Equally, without a clear medical benefit relative to the potential harms, a physician may take the ethical position that non-medical factors do not contribute enough as benefits to outweigh the potential harms and refuse to perform the procedure.

Medical organization such as the British Medical Association state that their member physicians are not obliged to perform the procedure in such situations.

In the International NGO Council on Violence against Children identified non-therapeutic circumcision of infants and boys as being among harmful practices that constitute violence against children and violate their rights.

The cost-effectiveness of circumcision has been studied to determine whether a policy of circumcising all newborns or a policy of promoting and providing inexpensive or free access to circumcision for all adult men who choose it would result in lower overall societal healthcare costs.

The overall cost-effectiveness of neonatal circumcision has also been studied in the United States, which has a different cost setting from Africa in areas such as public health infrastructure, availability of medications, and medical technology and the willingness to use it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Circumsicion. This article is about male circumcision. For female circumcision, see Female genital mutilation.

Removal of the foreskin from the human penis. A circumcision performed in Central Asia, c. Main article: Circumcision surgical procedure.

Main article: Circumcision and HIV. Main article: Prevalence of circumcision. Main article: History of circumcision.

See also: Religious male circumcision. Main article: Brit milah. Main article: Khitan circumcision. Main article: Tuli rite. Main article: Ethics of circumcision.

See also: Circumcision controversies and Circumcision and law. Rudolph's Pediatrics, 22nd Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, Incorporated. Archived from the original on 18 January Archived from the original on World Health Organization.

Archived PDF from the original on Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics, Fourth edition. Although routine neonatal circumcision is still common in some Western countries such as the USA, the arguments generally used to justify on medical grounds have been discredited and no national or international medical association currently advocates routine neonatal circumcision.

McGraw Hill Professional. In Bolnick, David A. Surgical Guide to Circumcision.

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